Ginkgo biloba extract is the most well-studied botanical for cognitive support. In addition to protecting overall neuronal function, ginkgo biloba increases cerebral blood flow, and protects neurons from a variety of hypoxic conditions and oxidant-induced damage.
Synthesized from tabersonine, a natural extract from the seeds of the West African plant Voacanga africana, vinpocetine has recently been the subject of research related to cognitive health because of its neuroprotective mechanisms, including its antioxidant, and vasodilating activities. Vinpocetine has the ability to cross the blood brain barrier and has vasorelaxant effects on cerebral smooth muscle tissue.
A purified component derived from Chinese club moss, huperzine A has been shown in research to improve memory and support optimal cognitive health.